The CIA and the Myth of a Communist Conspiracy
The Libertarians and the Tea Party, like much of the Christian Right in the United States, have fallen into a trap set for them by the CIA, to denounce “Big Government” to make way for the nefarious neoliberal economics of the Mont Pelerin Society.
Fueling their paranoia is an anachronistic fear of an insidious “communist conspiracy.” A key influence, as in the rabid Glenn Beck of the sensationalistic Fox News, and anti-conspiracy loudmouth Alex Jones, was conspiracy “historian” and member of the notorious of the John Birch Society, Cleon Skousen.
In 1958, Skousen published The Naked Communist, where he listed 45 goals the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) supposedly wanted to achieve in order to destroy American society and merge it with the Soviet Union.
However, according to CIA agent and later Watergate burglar Howard Hunt, “the Communist Party of the United States, in fact, at the moment, was practically a branch of the Justice Department.” A chief link to the CIA was Jay Lovestone, who had served as leader of the Communist Party USA and then as foreign policy advisor to the leadership of the AFL-CIO. Lovestone was feeding information about Communist labor-union activities to James Jesus Angleton, the CIA's counterintelligence chief, in order to undermine Communist influence in the international union movement and provide intelligence to the US government.
Lovestone was also boss to CIA agent Irving Brown at the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Brown was described as a “one-man OSS.” In 1948, George Kennan had considered him to head the OPC, before he gave the job to Frank Wisner, the head of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency during the 1950s. Wisner then placed Brown on the steering committee of the Conference for Cultural Freedom, a CIA front on their cultural Cold War against the Soviet Union, which made use of what the CIA considered the “non-Communist Left,” left-wing intellectuals who were opposed to Stalin. As European Representative of the AFL, Brown was the conduit to pass vast sums of government money and Marshall Plan funds into covert operations, using the cover that the money came from labor unions.
This façade of Communism was exposed by Carroll Quigley, a Harvard educated professor at Georgetown University, who claimed direct contact with the conspiratorial organizations he called the Anglo-American Establishment, which conducted a conspiracy which he regarded “largely commendable.” While otherwise often quoted by conspiracy aficionados, they conveniently ignore an important point Quigley explained about this supposed “communist conspiracy”:
This radical Right fairy tale, which is now an accepted folk myth in many groups in America, pictured the recent history of the United States, in regard to domestic reform and in foreign affairs, as a well-organized plot by extreme Left-wing elements.... This myth, like all fables, does in fact have a modicum of truth. There does exist, and has existed for a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates, to some extent, in the way the Radical right believes the Communists act. In fact, this network, which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other group, and frequently does so. I know of the operation of this network because I have studied it for twenty years and was permitted for two years, in the early 1960’s, to examine its papers and secret records. I have no aversion to it or to most of its aims and have, for much of my life, been close to it and to many of its instruments. I have objected, both in the past and recently, to a few of its policies... but in general my chief difference of opinion is that it wishes to remain unknown, and I believe its role in history is significant enough to be known.
For these and other reasons, the CIA was particular apprehensive about Senator McCarthy, who naively claimed the CIA was a “sinkhole of communists.” FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover, referring to “Wisner’s gang of weirdos,” discovered that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the 1930s, information which he passed to McCarthy. So Wisner unleashed the CIA’s media thugs, recruited to their Operation Mockingbird, permanently damaging McCarthy’s reputation.
John Birch Society
It was the John Birch Society, founded by Robert W. Welch Jr. in 1958, that published Cleon Skousen’s The Naked Communist. Skousen served sixteen years in the FBI, but lied that for four of them he was an “Administrative Assistant to J. Edgar Hoover.” In 1956, Skousen became Chief of Police in Salt Lake City, but was fired by Mayor J. Bracken Lee in 1960 who described him as "a very dangerous man because he preaches one thing, practices another, does not tell the truth, and cannot be relied upon." The FBI, which was repeatedly required to corroborate Skousen’s claims, noted in a memo:
The activities of Skousen are well known to the Bureau… In recent years he has been aligned closely with the extreme right-wing such as the John Birch Society and has been characterized as an ‘unprincipled racketeer in anticommunism’ who is ‘money mad’ and who is doing everything and anything to exploit the subject of anticommunism.
Welsh was a 32nd degree Freemason. Ultimately, the JBS castigates the “Illuminati,” who they claim infiltrated the Freemasons, an otherwise noble and truly patriotic organization. The organization qualified their publication of the John Robison’s Proof of a Conspiracy, exposing the Illuminati, and originally published in 1789, with:
Let it be stressed that the present publication of Robison's work is not intended to open old wounds or create new animosity or distrust toward Freemasonry, whose adherents today certainly number among our staunchest patriots and anti-Communists... The conspirators have long since discarded Freemasonry as their vehicle. If clever conspirators could use - of all groups - so fine a group as the Masons, we must open our minds to consider what infinite possibilities are available to them in our own present day society. Their main habitat these days seems to be the great subsidized universities, tax-free foundations, mass media communications, governmental bureaus such as the State Department, and a myriad of private organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations…
The John Birch Society also published None Dare Call it a Conspiracy, the work of its spokesman Gary Allen, which discussed the Rothschilds, Warburgs, the Federal Reserve banking system and the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), and which is said to have sold five million copies worldwide.
The introduction to Allen's book was written by another member of the John Birch Society, John G. Schmitz who was regarded as the third most conservative member of Congress between 1937 and 2002. Schmitz's political career came to an end in 1982, after he admitted that he had engaged in an extra-marital affair and fathered two children with one of his former college students Carla Stuckle. When she died in 1994, the children were placed in the care of a close friend of Schmitz's wife, Jeane Dixon, who was one of the best-known American astrologers and psychics of the twentieth century.
One of Schmitz's daughters with his wife Mary was Mary Kay Letourneau who became the subject of much notoriety in the 1990s, when she engaged in a sexual relationship with one of her 12-year-old male students. Two of Schmitz's other children, sons John and Joseph, have held prominent posts in Republican presidential administrations. His son Joseph Schmitz has also worked for the notorious international security firm Blackwater USA.
Allen was also the speechwriter for governor of Alabama George Wallace during the Alabama Governor’s Presidential campaigns. After four unsuccessful runs for U.S. president, Wallace earned the title "the most influential loser" in twentieth-century American politics. He is remembered for his support for segregation during the desegregation period. He complained: "The President (John F. Kennedy) wants us to surrender this state to Martin Luther King and his group of pro-Communists who have instituted these demonstrations."
Wallace racist politics were a reflection of an on-going relationship between radicals of the American right and neo-fascist groups, with whom they shared a rabid hatred of communism. Wallace’s anti-desegregation campaign galvanized much of the American far-right and white supremacist groups. An important example is Eustace Clarence Mullins, who was a researcher at the Library of Congress in 1950 and worked with Senator Joseph McCarthy.
Mullins had become a devotee of the notorious right-wing American poet Ezra Pound. It was Pound, explained Mullins, whom he regarded as a “political prisoner,” who set him on the course of research that led to his writing The Secrets of The Federal Reserve, the preeminent conspiratorial treatment of the creation the American Federal Reserve system by mostly Jewish bankers. However, at the time, Pound was a patient of chief MK-Ultra psychiatrist, Dr. Winfred Overholser.
Mullins, an admirer of Hitler, founded the Free Ezra Pound Committee (FEPC) where fascist personality Matt Koehl was chairman, and was member of another fascist organization, the National Renaissance Party (NPR). Researcher Ernie Lazar published a scathing report of Mullins’ dubious past and neo-Nazi affiliations based on several FBI reports, showing that Mullins altered FBI documents which he reproduced in his book, excising portions which referred to his homosexuality, his anti-Semitism and his connections to neo-Nazis and racial extremists. According to FBI memos: “Mullins is a warped, degenerate and depraved individual.”
Koehl was also the Youth Section Leader of the American Committee for the Advancement of Western Culture (ACFAWC), founded by H. Keith Thompson, where Mullins served as “Treasurer.” Strangely, Thompson served as a communications officer aboard the USS Mt. Olympus, the flagship of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition of December 1946 to April 1947 which is well-known among UFO researchers. Byrd led 4,000 military troops from the US, Britain and Australia, known as Operation Highjump, to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV. However, according to popular legend, the Byrd expedition was an “invasion” and encountered heavy resistance from Nazi “flying saucers” and had to call off the invasion.
Members of the NRP, and its founder, James Madole who were also represented on the ACFAWC, hoped it would serve as “a high policy planning group for the coordination of racial nationalist activities in America, Europe, Africa, and Asia.” Among others associated with ACFAWC were Benjamin H. Freedman, a convert from Judaism to Roman Catholicism who became an anti-Semitic and anti-Zionist activist.
Freedman was a financial backer of the author Conde McGinley, publisher of the periodical Common Sense, to which Mullins was a frequent contributor. The HCUA described Common Sense as "almost exclusively a vehicle for the exploitation of ignorance, prejudice and fear" and as "a clearinghouse for hate propaganda throughout the country." A typical 1962 article in Common Sense was an "expose" entitled: "Zionist Invisible Government Plotting To Establish a World Government Under A Red Dictatorship Led By Asiatic Marxist Jews.”
There were also close relations between the NRP and the Church of Satan, of Anton Lavey. Madole and LaVey met frequently, and Madole is said to have erected a large satanic altar in his apartment, and Madole played LaVey’s recording of the Satanic Mass at several NRP meetings. Douglas Robbins, another ex-leader from the Church of Satan, cultivated close links with the fascist NRP of James Madole, and formed the satanic Order of the Black Ram with some other NRP members “to celebrate the ancient religious rites of the Aryan race.”
A memo in the FBI file of Eustace Mullins discusses an article he in McGinley’s Common Sense, that developed the theme “that the Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation in schools is the culmination of a Communist International directive to the CPUSA to use the Negro racial issue and the issue of civil rights as a method to weaken America.” Mullins lied, however, claiming the document: “is in the files of the FBI today but the Director is under strict orders not to reveal (it) at any cost because it would brand the Supreme Court as a front or agent of the Communist International.” No such document was ever found.
Mullins claims that he was told personally by one of its founders Revilo Oliver, whom he regarded as a “good friend,” that the JBS was created by Nelson Rockefeller who appointed Robert C. Welch to found and run the organization.
In fact, despite its supposed opposition to globalist organizations, the JBS served as a front for American intelligence. In Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States, sociologist Sara Diamond noted that to reduce the cost of producing and distributing anti-Communist materials, corporations turned to non-profit organizations such as the JBS. According to a 1976 investigation by the New York Assembly's Office of Legislative Oversight, JBS member John Rees' Information Digest was supplying information to the FBI, CIA, and the National Security Agency.
Roy Cohn [as in the movie Citzen Cohn], who was legal counsel to Senator McCarthy during the anti-Communist Senate investigations of the 1950s, later became a member of the JBS. Cohn also became a principle figure in its intelligence gathering operation the Western Goals Foundation, which was set up to side-step restrictions imposed after the Watergate and COINTELPRO revelations. As a consequence, intelligence files passed into the hands of “retired” officers and their most trusted operatives.
Many of these officers, like John Rees and Congressman Larry McDonald, were members of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), the John Birch Society and similar organizations, and joined Major General John K. Singlaub in forming the Western Goals Foundation in 1979. Western Goals acquired a reputation of acting as a “clearinghouse” for some police departments whose intelligence-collecting functions were restricted by laws such as the Freedom of Information Act.
According to Western Goals, the group’s objective was to “rebuild and strengthen the political, economic, and social structure of the US and Western Civilization so as to make any merger with the totalitarian world impossible.” As part of this effort, the group was formed in order to "fill the critical gap caused by the crippling of the FBI, the disabling of the House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) and the destruction of crucial government files." According to reporters Jon Lee Anderson and Scott Anderson, groups like Western Goals allow “the ultra-right [to keep] tabs on its ‘subversive’ domestic opposition...” McDonald kept official files in his office, described by one staff member as “HUAC in exile.” These files, which had been ordered destroyed under Privacy Act provisions, were supposedly transferred by McDonald to Western Goals.
Western Goals was also associated to Reinhard Gehlen, former Nazi head of intelligence who was recruited by the CIA under Operation Paperclip after the war, and with whom they shared a connection with the Order of the Knights of Malta (SMOM). Instrumental in obtaining Rees’ entrance to Western Goals was J. Peter Grace, who was also chairman of the Knights of Malta in the US, as well as belonging to the CFR, and serving as a key figure in Operation Paperclip.
Grace’s company, W. R. Grace & Company, stands out as the center of the SMOM in the United States, where no less than eight knights, including the chancellor of the order, John D. J. Moore, who was ambassador to Ireland under Nixon and Ford, have been its directors. W. R. Grace was founded by Peter’s grandfather, William Grace, who was a close associate of George de Mohrenschildt, who has been suspected of involvement in the JFK assassination. After the end of World War II, de Mohrenschildt moved to Venezuela where he worked for Pantepec Oil, a company with abundant connections with the newly created CIA, and owned by the family of SMOM and Skull and Bones member, William F. Buckley.
In 1951, when the CIA smuggled Klaus Barbie out of Germany, he was sent to Bolivia to join Nazi Colonel Brite, which W. R. Grace had been accused in a military report of protecting during the war. J. Peter Grace assisted Otto Ambros—who held a supervisory role in the construction of a plant at Auschwitz by the chief corporation of the Nazis, IG Farben—in his bid to enter the US, after his sentence for slavery and mass murder was commuted by American recruiters from Operation Paperclip.
J. Peter Grace was also connected to the son of Frederick Flick, a Nuremberg defendant as an accessory to the crimes of the SS, released by John J. McCloy, former High Commissioner of Germany and chairman of the CIA fronts, the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, as well as chairman of the CFR. Prior to the war, McCloy had been legal counsel to IG Farben. After World War II, McCloy helped shield Klaus Barbie from the French, and commuted the death sentences of a number of Nazi war criminals, and gave early releases to others. One was Alfried Krupp, the ultra-wealthy German industrialist who was represented by Otto Skorzeny—Hitler’s star commando—in Argentina, and Hjalmar Schacht, who subsequently went on the payroll of Aristotle Onassis.
Grace has a long history of involvement with CIA-linked enterprises, such as Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, which was the brainchild of Reinhard Gehlen. He is also the board chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), whose graduates were active in covert operations that led to the military coup in Brazil in 1964. During the early 1970s, the Grace representative in Washington was a member of ITT’s Ad Hoc Committee on Chile, which was instrumental in the overthrow of Allende, and AIFLD’s National Workers’ Confederation served as the chief labor mouthpiece for the Pinochet junta.
Western Goals was finally wound up in 1986 when the Tower Commission revealed it had been part of the Iran-Contra funding network. Oliver North identified Singlaub as his liaison to the White House. Singlaub had served as an officer in the OSS during World War II, and then became CIA deputy chief in South Korea during the Korean War. He served for two years in Vietnam during the 1960s, and was commander of the Joint Unconventional Warfare Task Force, known as MACSOG.
In that role, Singlaub was one of the commanders of the CIA’s Operation Phoenix which was designed to identify and “neutralize” key assets of the Viet Cong. In 1984, he headed a Pentagon panel to make recommendations on conducting military activities in Central America through nonconventional, counterinsurgency warfare strategies. Under the Reagan administration, he received assistance from White House and National Security Council (NSC) officials for his “private” contra-supply activities.
The Council for National Policy (CNP)
Singlaub, along with JBS members like Skousen and Grace were also members of the Council for National Policy (CNP). Another member of the CNP is John Stormer, whose None Dare Call It Treason identified the CFR as a pro-Communist and a Rockefeller-funded organization aimed at undermining American society. The CNP was therefore ostensibly formed to counter the CFR and the so-called liberal agenda.
However, researchers revealed that the early leadership of the CNP was, on the contrary, also represented in the CFR. The CNP is an umbrella organization and networking group for American conservative activists. It was described by The New York Times as a “little-known group of a few hundred of the most powerful conservatives in the country,” who meet three times yearly behind closed doors at undisclosed locations for a confidential conference.
Max Blumenthal, in the Nation, referred to CNP a secretive organization that "networks wealthy right-wing donors together with top conservative operatives to plan long-term movement strategy." Among CNP’s founding members were: Tim LaHaye, then the head of the Moral Majority, Nelson Bunker Hunt, one of the chief sponsors of Western Goals Foundation, and Joseph Coors and Paul Weyrich, head of another CIA front, the Heritage Foundation, which is behind the neoconservatives’ mobilization of the Christian Right.
Members of the CNP have also included Rev. Pat Robertson, Jerry Falwell, Senator Trent Lott, former United States Attorneys General Ed Meese and John Ashcroft, gun-rights activist Larry Pratt, Col. Oliver North and philanthropist Else Prince, mother of Erik Prince, the founder of Blackwater USA.
CNP members have supported legislation proposed by the Church of Scientology, and John Singlaub is also a member of the national policy board of the American Freedom Coalition, a political organization with extensive ties to the Unification Church. Also known as the “Moonies,” it was established by Korean religious leader and self-professed “messiah” Rev. Sun Myung Moon, who also founded the conservative Washington Times newspaper, and are aligned with various other groups supported by Moon such as CAUSA International.
CNP also has membership links to the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), an international anti-communist political organization founded in 1966 in Taipei, under the initiative of Chiang Kai-shek, with the aim of opposing communism around the world through “unconventional” methods. The US chapter of WACL, the United States Council for World Freedom (USCWF), was founded in 1981 by Singlaub.
It has been alleged but not proven that the League had close ties with the governments of Taiwan under Kuomintang rule, and to a lesser extent South Korea. Numerous groups participated, including Moon’s Unification Church. Its core activity involved providing financial and material aid to right-wing organizations and anti-communist militias around the globe. By the mid-1980s, WACL had become the leading non-governmental supplier of arms to anti-communist rebel movements in southern Africa, Central America, Afghanistan and the Far East.
The WACL also enjoyed support from both the Carter and Reagan administrations in the United States, particularly with regard to its backing of right-wing paramilitary death squads in Latin America, like Nicaraguan guerrillas in the Iran-Contra affair. Joseph Coors privately donated $65,000 through National Security Council adviser Oliver North to buy a light cargo plane for the Contras effort.
In 1978, Roger Pearson, who had close neo-Nazi associations, became the World Chairman of the WACL. When Joseph Coors established the Heritage Foundation, he had chosen Pearson, an outspoken anti-Semite and pro-Nazi, as co-editor of the Heritage Foundation publication Policy Review. Pearson was also elected to head University Professors for Academic Order (UPAO), composed of members of the Heritage Foundation, the Reagan Administration and the Mont Pelerin Society, including Milton Friedman and Friedrich von Hayek.
In the late 1950s, Pearson founded the Northern League, an organization promoting anti-Semitism and neo-Nazi ideologies that included former Nazis. As well, Pearson was a member of the Eugenics Society, and an important figure on the racist journal, Mankind Quarterly. Von Verschuer, Josef Mengele’s co-researcher at Auschwitz, was on the editorial advisory board of the journal before his death in 1970.
When Pearson was elected World Chairman of the WACL in 1978, according to William H. Tucker, he “used this opportunity to fill the WACL with European Nazis—ex-officials of the Third Reich and Nazi collaborators from other countries during the war as well as new adherents to the cause—in what one journalist called ‘one of the greatest fascist blocs in postwar Europe’.”
But Pearson was forced to leave Heritage after the Washington Post exposed the racist and fascist orientation of the WACL. But Pearson’s connection with other organizations continued, and as late as 1986 Covert Action criticized his continued association with James Jesus Angleton, General Robert C. Richardson and other American Security Council members.
CFR member Jesse Helms was also a key figure in founding the CNP. Jesse Helms (1921-2008) was a five-term Republican Senator from North Carolina who served as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from 1995 to 2001. A 33º Mason, Helms was also a Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons in North Carolina. A leading conservative, Helms helped organize and fund the conservative resurgence in the 1970s, aiding Ronald Reagan's quest for the White House. The Almanac of American Politics once wrote that “no American politician is more controversial, beloved in some quarters and hated in others, than Jesse Helms.”
Helms played a leading role in the development of the Christian right, and was a founding member of the Moral Majority in 1979. Helms was close to fellow North Carolinian Billy Graham, as well as Pat Robertson, and Jerry Falwell, whose Liberty University dedicated its Jesse Helms School of Government to him.
Helms’ top aide, attorney Tom Ellis, who would later be instrumental in Ronald Reagan’s 1976 campaign and also become the chair of the National Congressional Club, succeeded Tim LaHaye in 1982 as president of the CNP. Ellis was former director of the Pioneer Fund, a foundation established in 1937 “to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences.”
The Pioneer Fund has been an important source of funding for research on the partly genetic hypothesis of IQ variation among races. The 1994 publication of The Bell Curve drew heavily from Pioneer-funded research. Recipients of Pioneer grants have included William Shockley, Arthur Jensen and Roger Pearson, who has written that “inferior races” should be “exterminated.” At the Institute for the Study of Man, Roger Pearson received over a million dollars in grants in the 80s and 90s from the Pioneer Fund. Going by the pen-name of Stephan Langton, Pearson was editor of The New Patriot, published in 1966–67 to conduct “a responsible but penetrating inquiry into every aspect of the Jewish Question,” which included articles such as "Zionists and the Plot Against South Africa," "Early Jews and the Rise of Jewish Money Power," and "Swindlers of the Crematoria."
The American Far-Right
When Pearson established himself in the United States, he had worked together with Willis Carto in contributing to publications of white supremacist and anti-Semitic literature, such as Western Destiny and to Noontide Press. Carto a longtime figure on the American far-right was an influential political racial theorists through the Liberty Lobby and successor organizations which he helped create. The Liberty Lobby, which was active in the 1950s, is regarded as the source of an insurgent wing of the Patriot Movement through its promotion of themes of White supremacy and anti-Semitism.
While in prison for possessing falsified passports, fascist ideologue Francis Parker Yockey was visited by Carto who eventually became the chief advocate and publisher of his ideas.
Carto also belonged at one time to the John Birch Society. When Revilo Oliver left the JBS, he became editorial advisor for Carto’s Institute for Historical Review. Carto ran a group called Youth for George Wallace to aid his third party presidential campaign in 1968. When the campaign failed, he converted what remained of the organization into the National Youth Alliance. As National Chairman for this group, Carto was successful in recruiting Dr. William Pierce who, after the death of Lincoln Rockwell, the founder of the American Nazi Party, reorganized it into the American neo-Nazi group, the National Alliance in 1974, of which Pierce became the leader.
 Frances Stonor Saunders. Who Paid the Piper, p. 191.
 Ted Morgan, A Covert Life: Jay Lovestone: Communist, Anti-Communist, and Spymaster, (New York: Random House, 1999) pp. 350-351.
 Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time. (New York: Macmillan, 1966)
 Ernie Lazar. “W. Cleon Skosen. The Mythology Surrounding His FBI Career” rev. 12/12/11.
 FBI HQ file 67-69602, #286; 8/8/60 letter from J. Bracken Lee to Mrs. Elizabeth Laine, Arcadia CA, cited in Ernie Lazar. W. Cleon Skosen. “The Mythology Surrounding His FBI Career.”
 FBI HQ 62-104401, #2280; 10/8/64 memo from M.A. Jones to Mr. DeLoach, cited in Ernie Lazar. W. Cleon Skosen. “The Mythology Surrounding His FBI Career.”
 James Robison, Proofs of a Conspiracy (Western Islands Publishers, 1976, 1789), Introduction.
 Alabama Governor George Wallace, public statement of May 8, 1963 in The New York Times. (May 9, 1963).
 FBI HQ file 105-15727, #42; 6/2/59 memo from A. Rosen to J. Edgar Hoover
 “Preliminary Report on Neo-Fascist and Hate Groups.”
 Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890–1935, p. 83.
 Ernie Lazar, Eustace Mullins and the Conspiratorial Extreme Right. [https://sites.google.com/site/ernie124102/mullins]
 Eustace Mullins, Murder by Injection.
 Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (Guilford Press, 1995), p. 52.
 Interhemispheric Resource Center, GroupWatch, Western Goals Foundation, References: 5. Letter from Sean Steinbach and Dominik Diehl, May 22, 1987. 8. Elton Manzione, “The Private Spy Agency,” The National Reporter (Summer 1985).
 Encyclopedia of Associations, 1989
 Elton Manzione, “The Private Spy Agency,” The National Reporter (Summer 1985).
 Scott Anderson & Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League, (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1986).
 Conversation with Chip Berlet, Political Research Associates, (March 2, 1989). “Western Goals Foundation,” Right Web.
 “Knights of Darkness: The Sovereign Military Order of Malta,” Covert Action Bulletin (Winter 1986) Number 25.
 Martin A. Lee, “Their Will Be Done,” Mother Jones, July 1983.
 “Western Goals Foundation,” Interhemispheric Resource Center: GroupWatch Profiles.
 K.E. Barr, Unholy Alliances (2000), p. 25
 David D. Kirkpatrick, “The 2004 Campaign: The Conservatives: Club of the Most Powerful Gathers in Strictest Privacy,” New York Times (August 28, 2004).
 Max Blumenthal, “Secretive Right-Wing Group Vetted Palin,” The Nation (January 9, 2008)
 USA. “Welcome - Political Research Associates - Right Web.” Rightweb.irc-online.org.
 USA. “Committee for the Free World - Political Research Associates - Right Web.” Rightweb.irc-online.org.
 William H. Blanchard, Neocolonialism American Style, 1960-2000. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood) p, 196.
 Russ Bellant, Old Nazis, the New Right, and the Republican Party, (South End Press, 1988), pp. 63-4.
 British Eugenics Society website, cited in “The Heritage Foundation: Power Elites: The Merger of Right and Left."
 William H. Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research. (University of Illinois Press, 1996). p. 257.
 “The Checkered Careers of James Angleton and Roger Pearson,” Covert Action, No. 25 (Winter 1986).
 “Jesse Helms,” The Daily Telegraph (July 6, 2008).
 Russ Bellant, The Coors Connection, (South End Press, 1988), pp. 37-38.
 Barry Mehler, Race Science and the Pioneer Fund. (July 7, 1998). Originally published as “The Funding of the Science” in Searchlight, No. 277.