The Shabbatean Frankists
A new order would be formed within Freemasonry, a secret society within a secret society, founded by members of a Jewish family, the Rothschilds, who were affiliated with a development of Lurianic Kabbalah headed by false messiah known as Shabbetai Zevi. According to Gershom Scholem, the foremost authority on the Kabbalah, the Shabbatean movement was “the largest and most momentous messianic movement in Jewish History” since the destruction of Jerusalem. In 1666, Shabbetai Zevi, followed by his prophet, Nathan of Gaza, proclaiming himself the promised Messiah of Judaism. Zevi succeeded in rallying a large following, involving nearly half of the Jewish population of the world, including the Jews of Palestine, Egypt, and Eastern and Western Europe. The movement was shattered however, when, forced by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire to choose martyrdom or conversion, Zevi chose conversion to Islam.
Nathan became a Roman Catholic, and the movement largely collapsed, though some followed Zevi into conversion, and there is down to the present time an Islamic sect in Turkey that follows his teachings, known as the “Doenmeh”, who profess Islam only outwardly, while adhering to a mixture of traditional and heretical Judaism in secret.
The Shabbatean heresy, which until that time had survived in secret circles akin to something of a Masonic organization, reemerged definitely through the Jewish sect of the Frankists. They were also known as the Zoharists, or the Illuminated, or, in Podolia, from where they originated, as Shabbatean Zevists, for their allegiance to the false messiah of the preceding century. The leader of the Zoharists was Jacob Frank, originally named Jacob Leibowicz, who regarded himself as a reincarnation of Zevi.
Frank, who rejected the Talmud in favour of the Zohar, maintained that certain elect individuals are exempt from the moral law. The Shabbateans believed that in the Messianic age, the laws of the Torah were no longer valid, and all that had been formerly prohibited was now permitted, or even mandatory. This included all the prohibited sexual unions and incest. Therefore, their practices, which included orgiastic, sexually promiscuous rites, led the Jewish community to brand them as heretics.
Frank preached a “Religious Myth of Nihilism”. Ultimately, Frank taught his followers that the overthrow and destruction of society was the only thing that could save mankind. Despite the fact that they were all outwardly religious, the Frankists sought “the annihilation of every religion and positive system of belief,” and they dreamed “of a general revolution that would sweep away the past in a single stroke so that the world might be rebuilt.” Of the revolutionary philosophy of the Frankists, Gershom Scholem wrote in Kabbalah and Its Symbolism: “for Frank, anarchic destruction represented all the Luciferian radiance, all the positive tones and overtones, of the word Life.”
Jacob Frank promulgated his nihilistic religion as “the way to Esau” or “Edom”. According to Frank, all the great patriarchs had sought the way to God, but without success. It was therefore necessary to find a new way, which leads to “true life”, which Esau or Edom symbolize as liberation, or man’s nature unbridled by law. In order to achieve this goal, it would be necessary to abolish all laws, but to be accomplished in secret. As the “true believers” had already passed through Judaism and Islam, they ought now also to assume the “religion of Edom”, or Christianity, outwardly, using it to conceal the real core of their belief of Jacob Frank as the true Messiah and the living God.
In 1759, members of the sect converted to Christianity, but nevertheless persisted in heretical ways. As a result, the Inquisition imprisoned Frank in 1760. Freed by the conquering Russians in 1773 though, he eventually settled in Offenbach, Germany, dubbing himself baron. In the period between Frank’s conversion to his death, the community of his followers strengthened their position not only in Poland, but also in the Austrian territories of Moravia and Bohemia. The movement became active in Masonic organizations and began to combine revolutionary Kabbalistic ideas with the philosophical ideals of the Enlightenment. Among Frank’s followers, according to Scholem, some were accepted into the administration and aristocracy of the Habsburgs, “but they preserved a few Frankist traditions and customs, so that a stratum was created in which the boundaries between Judaism and Christianity became blurred, irrespective of whether the members had converted or retained their links with Judaism.”
Many Frankist families kept a miniature of Frank’s daughter Eva, who assumed leadership after him, to be sent to the most prominent households. As describes Gershom Scholem:
The sect’s exclusive organization continued to survive in this period through agents who went from place to place, through secret gatherings and separate religious rites, and through dissemination of a specifically Frankist literature. The “believers” endeavored to marry only among themselves, and a wide network of inter-family relationships was created among the Frankists, even among those who had remained within the Jewish fold. Later Frankism was to a large extent the religion of families who had given their children the appropriate education. The Frankists of Germany, Bohemia, and Moravia usually held secret gatherings in Carlsbad in summer round about the ninth of Av.
The ninth of the month of Av was not only the supposed date of birth of Shabbetai Zevi, but is also known in Judaism as Tisha B’av. In Judaism, Tisha B'Av is the darkest day on the Jewish calendar, commemorating the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, first by the Babylonians, and secondly by the Romans. Also, the ninth of Av, 1492, was the day the Jews were expelled from Spain. The day is observed by Jews as a day of fasting and prayer. However, the Frankists celebrated the day with revel and orgies.
According to John Robison, who in 1798 exposed the devious evolution of the Illuminati in Proofs of a Conspiracy, remarked, of German Freemasonry, “I saw it much connected with many occurrences and schisms in the Christian church; I saw that the Jesuits had several times interfered in it; and that most of the exceptionable innovations and dissentions had arisen about the time that the order of Loyola was suppressed; so that it should seem, that these intriguing brethren had attempted to maintain their influence by the help of Free Masonry.” Therefore, when Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Jesuits in 1773, Adam Weishaupt, referred to as “a Jesuit in disguise” by his closest associate, Baron von Knigge, established the Illuminati as a secret order modeled on them.
The doctrines of the Illuminati, according to Albert Pike, a 33rd degree Scottish Rite Mason, as well as leading member of the Illuminati during the nineteenth century, was, like their predecessors, the Templars, Rosicrucians, and Freemasons, the ancient tradition of the Kabbalah:
The Occult Science of the Ancient Magi was concealed under the shadows of the Ancient Mysteries: it was imperfectly revealed or rather disfigured by the Gnostics: it is guessed at under the obscurities that cover the pretended crimes of the Templars; and it is found enveloped in enigmas that seem impenetrable, in the Rites of the Highest Masonry.
Magism was the Science of Abraham and Orpheus, of Confucius and Zoroaster. It was the dogmas of this Science that were engraven on the tables of stone by Enoch and Trismegistus. Moses purified and re-veiled them, for that is the meaning of the word reveal. He covered them with a new veil, when he made of the Holy Kabbalah the exclusive heritage of the people of Israel, and the inviolable Secret of its priests. The Mysteries of Thebes and Eleusis preserved among the nations some symbols of it, already altered, and the mysterious key whereof was lost among the instruments of an ever-growing superstition. Jerusalem, the murderess of her prophets, and so often prostituted to the false gods of the Syrians and Babylonians, had at length in its turn lost the Holy Word, when a Prophet announced by the Magi by the consecrated Star of Initiation [Sirius], came to rend asunder the worn veil of the old Temple, in order to give the Church a new tissue of legends and symbols, that still and ever conceal from the Profane, and ever preserves to the Elect the same truths.
According to Rabbi Marvin S. Antelman, in To Eliminate the Opiate, it the founder of the Rothschild dynasty who convinced Weishaupt to accept the Frankist doctrine, and who afterwards financed the Illuminati, with the aim of fulfilling the Frankist plot of subverting the world’s religions, or the Kabbalah’s Zionist objective of instituting a global government to be ruled by the expected Messiah.
A Jewish goldsmith, born Amschel Moses Bauer, who decided to settle in Frankfurt. He opened a Counting House, and over the door placed his sign, a red shield, featuring a “Star of David”. The shied is the same flag granted to the Prague Jews by Charles IV, and is in accordance with the Frankist doctrine of Edom or Esau, and the red banner of the Khazars, or Red Jews. As “red shield” in German is Roth Schild, Bauer’s son, Amschel Mayer Bauer, took on the name Rothschild.
It is Rothschild who said, “give me control of a nation’s money, and I care not who makes her laws.” Rothschild’s wealth was largely achieved through his association with the family of Hesse-Kassel. Rothschild served a three year apprenticeship in Hanover at the Bank of Oppenheim, at the service to Lt. Gen. Baron von Estorff, who was the principal adviser to Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel. Frederick II was a member of the Order of the Garter, as well as the wealthiest man in Europe, much of it inherited from his father, Wilhelm VIII, brother of the King of Sweden.
The House of Hesse is descended from Philip I the “Magnanimous” Landgrave of Hesse, who was a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation. In the early Middle Ages, Hesse was a part of Thuringia, but in the War of the Thuringian Succession, in the thirteenth century, Hesse gained its independence and became an Earldom within the Holy Roman Empire. The state existed until the death of Philip in 1567. Philip was a descendant of Margaret, the sister of Frederick I Margrave of Brandenburg, who had married Hermann Landgrave of Hessen. Philip married Chistine of Saxony, whose mother was Barbara of Jagellon, a great-granddaughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. Despite Philip’s intentions, Hessen was split among his four sons, but the only two to states to survive were Hessen-Kassel and Hessen-Darmstadt. Philip’s daughter, Elizabeth, married Ludwig VI Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine, grandfather of Frederick V.
Rothschild coat of arms
Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel was the great-grandson of Elizabeth Charlotte, the sister of Frederick V of the Palatinate. Elizabeth Charlotte was also the grandmother to Frederick I King of Prussia. Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel was a direct descendant of “Maurice the Learned” of Hesse-Kassel, uncle to Frederick IV of the Palatine. Maurice had procured the services of prominent Rosicrucians and alchemists, like Michael Maier, while the town of Kassel itself, according to Francis Yates, was where the Rosicrucian Manifestos were first published. Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel married Maria Princess of Hanover, cousin of Frederick II the Great King of Prussia, and the daughter of George II King of England.
Baron von Estorff advised the Landgrave that Mayer Amschel showed an exceptional ability to increase wealth through his investments. Mayer Amschel arranged to hire 16,800 Hessian soldiers to assist the nephew of Federick’s wife, King George III of England, in suppressing the American Rebellion. When Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel died in 1785, Rothschild obtained total influence over his successor, Karl’s brother Elector Wilhelm IX, who he managed to make one of the wealthiest monarchs of his time.
In 1773, Mayer Rothschild had invited twelve other wealthy and influential men, representing in all the thirteen bloodlines of the Illuminati, to convince them to pool their resources in a plot to bring about a new world order. Thus was Adam Weishaupt commissioned to establish the Illuminati. Though born Jewish, as a young boy, Weishaupt was educated by the Jesuits. On May 1, 1776, three years after the Jesuit order was disbanded by the Church, Weishaupt announced the foundation of the Order of Perfectibilists, which later became more widely known as the Illuminati.
The Asiatic Brethren
Karl Landgrave of Hessen-Kassell
Jacob Frank’s nephew and successor was Moses Dobruschka, who converted to Christianity, and entered the Habsburg nobility with the name of Franz Thomas von Schoenfeld. As Franz, he entered into Austrian Freemasonry, and became involved with Ecker von Eckhoffen. During the early 1780s, Eckhoffen became disgruntled with the Gold and Rosy Cross of 1777, and, with Dobruschka and members of the Habsburg nobility, formed what became known as the Asiatic Brethren.
The basis of the Asiatic Brethren, also known as the Fratres Lucis, or the Brotherhood of Light, was the Rosicrucianism, Martinism and the Illuminati. They purportedly represented a survival of the Sabians, though they were comprised chiefly of Jews, Turks, Persians, and Armenians. The full title of the organization was The Knights and Brethren of St. John the Evangelist.
Count St. Germain
The Grand Master of the Asiatic Brethren, and leading member of the Illuminati, was Prince Karl, the brother of Wilhelm I of Hessen-Kassel. Both were the sons of Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel, from his wife, Mary of Hanover, Princess of Great Britain, daughter of George II King of England, and therefore cousin to Frederick II the Great of Prussia. Karl married his first cousin, Louise, Princess of Denmark, of the Oldenberg dynasty that produced the Kings of Denmark, Norway, Greece, and the later Romanovs, Emperors of Russia. According to legend, the Oldenbergs are descended from Elgimar, a brother of Godfroi of Bouillon, from the Swan Knight and whose mother was Karl’s mother’s sister, Louise of Hanover, Princess of England.
Another member of the Asiatic Brethren, the Comte de St. Germain. St. Germain was a notorious charlatan and alchemist, whom many believed to be immortal. He was the supposed Grand Master of Freemasonry, and had become an acquaintance of Louis XV King of France and his mistress Madame de Pompadour. St. Germain was a permanent houseguest of Karl’s, who called him “the greatest philosopher who ever lived,” and nicknamed him “Papa”.
Catherine the Great
Csar Paul I of Russia
St. Germain was in St Petersburg to conspire when the Russian army assisted Catherine the Great in usurping the throne from her husband Peter III of Russia. The Russian royal family was descended from the Babylonian Exilarch through John Paleologos, eponymous ancestor of the Palaeogan dynasty that married into the Byzantine Royal family. The Palaeologan dynasty began with Michael VIII Palaiologos, who became emperor in 1259, and his descendants ruled until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Because of their intermarriage with European families, the Palaeologans were the first Imperial family to have crests and coats-of-arms in the Western manner, using the Imperial double-headed eagle.
Catherine was a German princess with a very remote Russian ancestry. She was from the House of Anhalt Zerbst from the House of Anhalt Zerbst, formed in the twelfth century, from the son of Albert I Margrave of Brandenburg, Bernard III Duke of Saxony, who married Judith of Poland, the daughter of Mieszko III, and Elizabeth Arpad, granddaughter Geza Arpad and of Vladimir I of Kiev.
Catherine the Great is remembered as one of the “Enlightened Monarchs”, because she implemented several politcal and cultural reforms on behalf of the Illuminati. Voltaire, with whom she maintained regular correspondence, called her “Semiramis of Russia”, in reference to the ancient Babylonian queen, on whom the worship of the goddess Astarte was based.
Catherine was succeeded by her son Csar Paul I. In her memoirs, she strongly implies that his father was not her husband, the Grand Duke Peter, later Emperor, but her lover Sergei Saltykoff. One of many aliases, Saltykoff was the name assumed by Count St. Germain, when he served as a Russian General while they were fighting the Turks. Csar Paul Paul himself was also a Mason, as well as Grand Master of the Knights of Malta.
Leading Illuminati like Pasquales, Saint-Martin and Swedenborg were all members of the Asiatic Brethren. Following the order’s demise, the title of Illuminati was given to the Martinists, founded by Saint-Martin. The origin of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique is found in French mystic, Martinez Pasquales, born in 1727. He organized a movement which he named the Ordre des Chevalier Maçons Elus-Coën de L'Univers, or “Order of the Knight Masons, Elected Priests of the Universe”, though his work was carried on by his pupil, Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, who later founded the order known as the Martinists, or the French Illuminés. In 1771, an amalgamation of all the Masonic groups was effected at the new lodge of the Amis Réunis. A further development of the Amis Réunis was the Rite of the Philalethes, formed by Savalette de Langes in 1773, out of Swedenborgian, Martinist, and Rosicrucian mysteries.
Emmanuel Swedenborg became interested in the teachings of Dr. Samuel Jacob Falk, known as the “Baal Shem” of London, who was reputed to exercise miraculous powers through his supposed mastery of the magical names of God. Falk was a crypto-Shabbatean, who collaborated with a network of fellow Zoharits in England, Holland, Poland, and Germany. Nesta Webster, in Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, explained, “Falk indeed was far more than a Mason, he was a high initiate the supreme oracle to which the secret socieites applied for guidance.” Finally, according to Savallete de Langes, “some people believe him to be the Chief of all the Jews and attribute to purely political schemes all that is marvellous and singular in his life and conduct.”
Webster also suggests that Falk would have been the source for the “Egyptian Rite” Count Cagliostro created in London. Cagliostro, whose original name is thought to have been Giuseppe Balsamo, was a magician and charlatan who enjoyed enormous success in Parisian high society, in the years preceding the French Revolution. According to his own fraudulent account, however, he was born an orphan on the Island of Malta. His earliest memories, he claimed, are of the holy city of Medina in Arabia, where he was called “Acharat”, and where he lived in the palace of the Mufti Salahaym. Four persons were attached to his service, the chief of whom was an Eastern Adept named Althotas, who instructed him in the various sciences and made him proficient in several Oriental languages. Though both teacher and pupil conformed outwardly to the religion of Islam, Cagliostro later wrote, “the true religion was imprinted in our hearts.”
Historians, however, believe Balsamo was the son of poor parents, and grew up as an urchin in the streets of Palermo. Escaping from Sicily after a series of minor crimes, he traveled through Greece, Egypt, Persia, Arabia, and Rhodes and apparently studied alchemy. He eventually assumed the title of count, and in 1768 married the Roman beauty Lorenza Feliciani, called Serafina. He traveled all the major European cities, selling elixirs of youth and potions, and posing as an alchemist, soothsayer, medium, and miracle healer. His séances had become popular in fashionable society in Paris by 1785.
According to his own admission, Cagliostro’s mission “was to work so as to turn Freemasonry in the direction of Weishaupt’s projects”. Louis Blanc, in his History of the French Revolution, 1848, reported that Cagliostro was initiated into the Illuminati at Frankfort, 1781, under the authority of “the Grand Masters of the Templars”. From them he received instructions and funds to carry out their diabolical intrigues, through the famous “affair of the necklace” against Marie Antoinette, in preparation for their eventual seizure of power. As a consequence, he spent nine months in the Bastille prison, until he was finally banished from France. In 1789 he was arrested in Rome after his wife had denounced him to the Inquisition as a heretic, magician, conjuror, and Freemason. He was finally tried and sentenced to death, but his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment in the fortress of San Leo in the Apennines, where he eventually died.
The French Revolution
Louis Philippe II
As part of his plan for political revolution, Weishaupt aimed to infiltrate Masonic lodges, and establish a hidden power base. Within a short time, the Illuminati had lodges all over Germany and Austria, while branches were founded in Italy, Hungary, France, and Switzerland. However, it was the Illuminati plot to overthrow the Habsburgs in 1784, exposed by police spies who had infiltrated the order, which led to the Bavarian government to ban all secret societies, and driving the followers of Weishaupt underground. Nevertheless, sufficient evidence remained that its members continued under different guises, spreading subversive ideas, and scheming behind the scenes.
Unhindered, the Illuminati proceeded with their plot for revolution in France. The chief conduit of their activities was the Loge des Chealiers Bienfaisants at Lyons. This Lodge stood at the head of French Freemasonry, and is where the fictitious Order of Masonic Knights Templars was formed. Its Grand Master was Illuminati member, the Duke of Orleans. He was merely Lieutenant to Frederick the Great, the Grand Master of all Freemasonry, though both shared Stuart lineage. The Duke’s great-grandfather was Philippe II, son of Philip I and Elizabeth-Charlotte, grand-daughter of Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine, and Elizabeth, daughter of King James I of England. Thus, the Duke of Orleans’ primary motivation, besides his hatred of the King and his wife, Marie Antoinette, was to himself succeed as King following the sought revolution.
About eight years before the Revolution, Orleans was elected Grand Master of France, and the whole association of various lodges came to be known as the Grand Orient. The chief instigators of the Revolution, Mirabeau, Condorcet, Rochefoucault and others, were high-raking officers of these lodges. The Count Mirabeau was himself a member of the Illuminati, and had attended the Grand Masonic Convention in 1782, at Wilhelmsbad, in Hessen-Kassell, where the ground-plan for the coming revolution was reputed to have originally been discussed. In 1788, deputies of the Illuminati were sent, upon his request, to inform the French lodges on strategy. Their first item of advice was the creation of a Political Committee in every lodge, and from these committees arose the Jacobins Club. Soon, nearly every lodge in the Grand Orient was infiltrated by supporters of Weishaupt, who became active in spreading the political policies of terrorism against the state.
Marquis de Condorcet
It was the English Civil War which initially ushered in the opposition of the Church’s interference in civil affairs. And, through the increasing influence of Masonic writers, primarily John Locke, who promoted a “Natural Law” in contradistinction to Biblical law, the economy became increasingly regarded as a self-governing phenomenon. Therefore, Masonic and Illuminati propagandists increasingly argued that religious morality was not needed to govern economic practices, which in themselves were virtuous. It was the Freemason, Adam Smith, in The Wealth of Nations, who proposed the notion that unrestrained selfishness was actually positive, by producing sufficient wealth to be distributed to other parts of society by an “invisible hand”.
All the leading philosophers of the Enlightenment were Freemasons, or members of the Illuminati, and assisted in propagating its goals. Therefore, through the influence of Lurianic Kabbalah, they fostered the idea that humanity is progressing through ever higher stages of development, which would culminate in the rule of “reason”, and “freedom”, meaning the full emancipation from the tyranny of “superstition” of religion.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
According to Illuminati member, Marie Jean Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet, who wrote, Outline of a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind, history progresses through nine stages, with a tenth, still ahead, when man will enjoy freedom, equality, and justice. The first of these epochs, is that of mankind living in kinship organization, with the simplest possible economy and the beginnings of religion. The eight succeeding epochs develop through the origins of language, craft, pastoralism, villages, towns, commerce, and reaching the heights of ancient classical civilization.
Next was the “barbarism” of Christian society, succeeded by the Renaissance, the rise of modern science, with the ninth epoch culminating in the success of the project of the Enlightenment. For Condorcet, “everything points to the fact that we are verging upon the epoch of one of the great revolutions of the human race . . . The existing state of knowledge guarantees that it will be auspicious.” The tenth epoch still in the future, will represent man’s final achievement of full equality, liberty, justice, and abolition of not merely poverty and hunger, but of all remaining impediments upon the human mind.
Likewise, in The Education of the Human Race, Illuminati member, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, incorporated Enlightenment ideas of human advancement. Lessing is most famous for his Nathan the Wise, in reference to “crypto-Shabbatean”, Rabbi Falk of London. Much more substantial and systematic was the work of Johann Gottfried Herder, also of the Illuminati, and the leading figure behind the rise of the German nationalism of the Romantic period. In Outlines of a Philosophy of History of Man, Herder presents mankind in a ceaseless process of evolution: commencing with the beginnings of the human race, proceeding, stage by stage, and reaching the level of civilization which was German at its best, but including the rest of the West as well.
The final German Enlightenment philosopher of note was Immanuel Kant, who was influenced by Emmanual Swedenborg, wrote the Idea of a Universal History from a Cosmopolitical Point of View, in which the progress of mankind is made central. Some of his propositions clearly outline the Illuminati agenda:
...The history of the human race, viewed as a whole, may be regarded as the realization of a hidden plan of nature to bring about a political constitution, internally, and, for this purpose, also externally perfect, as the only state in which all the capacities implanted by her in mankind can be fully developed.
In 1789, when the Bastille was stormed, the Comte de Mirabeau, allegedly said, “the idolatry of the monarchy has received a death blow from the sons and daughters of the Order of the Templars.” Albert Pike declared that, “the secret movers of the French Revolution had sworn to overthrow the Throne and the Altar upon the Tomb of Jacques de Molay.” The revolutionaries, many of whom were members of Masonic organizations, adopted the symbolism and language of the occult societies. The Masonic tenets of Equality, Liberty and Fraternity, became their rallying cry. When Louis XVI, King of France was executed, a voice in the crowd cried out “De Molay is avenged!”
The American Revolution
Just prior to the French Revolution, the Illuminati was also conspiring to bring about the American Revolution of 1776. Among the fifty-six American rebels who signed the Declaration of Independence, only six were not Masons. The American constitution itself was inspired by the French Revolution, and the ideals of Freemasonry. It enshrined “Liberty”, meaning freedom from the yoke of Christian morality, rules which it attempted to replace with “unalienable rights”, a concept originally discussed among the secret meetings of the Illuminati.
Both Washington and Jefferson, founder of the Democratic Party, were the leading descendants of Alain IV de Bretagne, the Fisher King, and therefore, descendants of Joseph of Arimathea and the “Sea god”. Also, both Washington and Jefferson were ardent defenders of Adam Weishaupt, while Jefferson even referred to him as an “an enthusiastic philanthropist”. George Washington wrote instead that he did not deny “the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States.” “On the contrary”, he replied “no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am.” He continued:
The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of separation). That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a seperation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned.
It was Jefferson who had been responsible for infiltrating the Illuminati into the then newly organized lodges of the “Scottish Rite” in New England. Jefferson defended Weishaupt saying:
As Weishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot and priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. This has given an air of mystery to his views, was the foundation of his banishment.... If Weishaupt had written here, where no secrecy is necessary in our endeavors to render men wise and virtuous, he would not have thought of any secret machinery for that purpose. 
In September 18, 1793, President George Washington dedicated the United States Capitol. Dressed in Masonic apron, the president placed a silver plate on the cornerstone and covered it with the Masonic symbols of corn, oil and wine. The plan of the city of Washington DC itself was designed by Freemason and architect Pierre Charles L’Enfante in the form of a pentagram, or five-pointed star. In 1848, in a Masonic ceremony, the cornerstone was laid of the Washington Monument, an obelisk or pillar, like those formerly dedicated to the dying gods of ancient Middle East. And, every president of the United States since Independence has purportedly been a 33rd degree Freemason.
 Scholem, Scholem, Kabbalah, p. 274.
 Rosenthal, Herman and Dubnow, S.M. “Frank, Jacob, and the Frankists”. Jewish Encyclopedia.
 Antelman, To Eliminate the Opiate.
 Robison. Proofs of a Conspiracy.
 Terry Melanson Illuminati Conspiracy Part One: A Precise Exegesis on the Available Evidence.
 Morals and Dogma, p. 840.
 Rabbi Antelman, Eliminate The Opiate, Volumes I and II; The Master Plan of the Illuminated Rothschilds, Ron Patton interview with Marion Knox.
 Scholem, Gershom. Kabbalah, Part II, 3, "Jacob Frank and the Frankists," p. 304 - 305
 Katz, Jacob. Jews and Freemasons in Europe. Translated from the Hebrew by Leonard Oschry. Chapter III. The Order of the Asiatic Brethren.
 The Peerage, “Karl Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel1 (M)” Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999),
 Melanson, Terry. Illuminati Conspiracy Part One: A Precise Exegesis on the Available Evidence.
 David Hughes, “Davidic Dynasty”.
 “Paul of Russia”, Wikipedia.
 Una Pope-Hennessy, Secret Societies and the French Revolution, 1876-1949.
 Leon Zeldis, “Freemasonry in Russia.”
 Anonymous, Rituals of the Fratres Lucis.
 Schuchard, Marsha Keith. Why Mrs. Blake Cried: Swedenborg, Blake, and the Sexual Basis of Spritual Vision.
 Webster, Nesta. Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, p. 189.
 Confessions of Count Cagliostro.
 Webster, Nesta. Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, Chap. 8: The Jewish Cabalists.
 Wilgus, Sergei. Illuminoids, p. 23.
 Quoted from Robert Nisbet, The Idea of Progress.
 Occult Conspiracy, p. 68.
 Morals and Dogma, p. 823.
 Family Trees, American & European Family Forest, Millenium Edition, CD-ROM (P.O. Box 6168, Kamuela, HI 96743. Robert Brian Stewart, “Captain Lawrence Washington”.
 Excerpt: Fisher, Paul. Behind the Lodge Door.
 Illuminati Exposed.